The Nyero Rock paintings, located approximately 8 kilometers (5 mi) west of Kumi town along the Kumi – Ngora road within Nyero Town Council, are the oldest rock paintings and the first to be discovered in Uganda. They hold a significant place in Uganda's historical heritage and are the most popular historical sites in the country. They are considered sacred ancestral places, where generations past would journey from far and wide to make offerings of food, animals, and money during periods of drought, misfortune, and seeking blessings for childbirth from the gods. The sites also served as a location for rain-making ceremonies. Remarkably, some of the caves still bear traces of smoke from ancient sacrifices. Oral histories recount strong emotional connections to the site, and even today, visitors are drawn to its spiritual significance. Within the area, six small rock shelters stand within a cave complex, each with its unique features, as a testament to the artistic expressions and customs of the ancient inhabitants. Although it is widely agreed that the paintings were created during the late Stone Age era, the original authors of the paintings have been a subject of much debate among researchers and archeologists. However, archeological excavations at the sites found typical Late Stone Age artifacts alongside pottery suggesting possible interactions with Neolithic communities (Lawrance 1953; Harwich 1961; Posnansky & Nelson 1968).Neolithic communities were organized into clans or extended families, residing in neighboring houses that formed households sharing common fireplaces. They practiced mixed farming and cattle-rearing, and social roles were defined based on gender, age, kinship, and participation in communal productive activities. They mainly lived in rock shelters, open-air sites, and along lakeshores, which provided suitable areas for residential, hunting, gathering, fishing, and ritual activities. They made them develop specialized tools like bone harpoons for fishing. Symbolism was significant in their culture, evident through body ornaments, the use of ochre, and the presence of rock art.While the exact genetic and linguistic origins of the authors of the paintings are challenging to ascertain, a section of archaeologists believe that the paintings were likely the work of the Twa hunter-gatherer communities, believed to have inhabited the area during the late Stone Age period. The reason they front is that the paintings here match the distribution of the Late Stone Age hunter-gatherer culture which works are equivalently found spread across the east and central parts of Africa. The Twa pygmies can currently be found in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo and western Uganda, along the Congo-Rwanda border. Nevertheless, there is also a possibility that the occupation and painting at Nyero rocks could have occurred over an extended period, as indicated by the superimpositions and depth of occupation debris at the sites. This has led some to argue that the Iteso, the current inhabitants of the area, may have also contributed to some of the paintings, given that many of the known rock art sites in Uganda are located in North Eastern Uganda, where the Iteso and the wider Ateker ethnic group reside.This differing opinion is also grounded on oral traditions and the works of researchers like Posnansky and Nelson (1968: 157), who argued that there was no known occupation of the Nyero rock shelters until the arrival of the Iteso. Iteso Welfare Association also highlights that Iteso migrated to Teso over a period of six generations. The first generation (Ojurata's tadpoles) were short people who were mainly gatherers and hunters. Interestingly, some of the depictions at Nyero Rock, such as those of rain-making ceremonies, resonate with the ethos and culture of the Iteso people. These ceremonies were performed to invoke the intervention of a higher power for rain during periods of drought. A.C.A Wright, for example, documented a rain-making ceremony (elelekeja) that was held in 1940 in Kyere rock, not so far away from Nyero rock paintings. A recent rain-making ceremony by Iteso from Amuria was even recorded in the drought of 2016 (The Daily Monitor, Friday, July 29, 2016).Similarly, depictions of the sun, a ladder, a boat, drought, and plagues at these sites have been interpreted by oral traditions to signify the practices, challenges, and hurdles overcome by Iteso while migrating to the present-day Teso sub-region. It is important to note that Iteso trace their origins back to Egypt, a country where the worship of the sun god was prevalent in ancient times. It is there that they also witnessed drought and different plagues, including the infestation of flies during the deliverance of the Israelites from the pharaoh. This may partly explain the symbolism of the rock art at Nyero and other sites across northeastern Uganda. Regardless of the exact creators of the paintings, the rock art at Nyero remains a captivating and unique attraction. It offers a glimpse into the ancient beliefs, cultural practices, and artistic expressions of the past.So a visit to Nyero Rock paintings is not just an exploration of ancient artwork but also a profound encounter with the spiritual and cultural heritage of the Iteso people. As visitors explore into the rock art, they are transported to a time of ancient rituals, beliefs, and traditions, experiencing a connection to the land's mystical past that is both fascinating and inspiring.